To simplify your pursuit of gemstone knowledge, the varieties discussed in this book will be described in the mineral species. The reason for doing it this way is that each variety of a particular mineral shares common physical and optical properties.

To narrow the list to twenty or so minerals to learn about is far simpler than learning about a hundred or so varieties separately. Gemstones may be known by a common name or by a varietal name; some of the names in this list are actually incorrect in a mineralogical or gemological sense, but this list has been compiled to help you find a particular stone you may be interested in.

See Also: Gem Dealers’ Secrets – Handbook for the Gem Buyer – Table of Contents

Gemstone Name Reference List

Common Name Mineral Name
Abalone pearls Pearls
Agate Quartz
Alexandrite Chrysoberyl
Almandine Garnet
Almandite Garnet
Amazonite Feldspar
Amethyst Quartz
Andradite Garnet
Aquamarine Beryl
Azurite Azurite
Balas ruby Spinel
Bixbite Beryl
Black onyx Quartz
Black opal Opal
Blister pearls Pearls
Bloodstone Quartz
Blue lace agate Quartz
Boulder opal Opal
Cat’s eye Chrysoberyl
Chalcedony Quartz
Chrome diopside Diopside
Chrome tourmaline Tourmaline
Chrysoberyl Chrysoberyl
Chrysolite Olivine
Chrysoprase Quartz
Citrine Quartz
Conch pearls Pearls
Coral Coral
Crocidolite Quartz
Cultured pearls Pearls
Diamond Diamond
Emerald Beryl
Fire agate Quartz
Fire opal Opal
Fluorite Fluorite
Freshwater pearls Pearls
Golden beryl Beryl
Goshenite Beryl
Green beryl Beryl
Grossular Garnet
Grossularite Garnet
Heliodor Beryl
Heliolite Feldspar
Hematite Hematite
Hessonite Garnet
Hiddenite Spodumene
Hyacinth Zircon
Imperial topaz Topaz
Indicolite Tourmaline
Iolite Cordierite
Jacinth Zircon
Jadeite Jade
Jasper Quartz
Keishi Pearls
Kunzite Spodumene
Kyanite Kyanite
Labradorite Feldspar
Lapis lazuli Lapis lazuli
Mabe pearls Pearls
Malachite Malachite
Mexican onyx Calcite
Moonstone Feldspar
Morganite Beryl
Nephrite Jade
Obsidian Obsidian
Olivine Olivine
Onyx Quartz
Opal Opal
Oriental pearls Pearls
Padparadsha Corundum
Peridot Olivine
Pyrope Garnet
Rhodochrosite Rhodochrosite
Rhodolite Garnet
Rhodonite Rhodonite
Rock crystal Quartz
Rose quartz Quartz
Rubellite Tourmaline
Ruby Corundum
Sapphire Corundum
Sard Quartz
Sardonyx Quartz
Scapolite Scapolite
Smoky quartz Quartz
Sodalite Sodalite
South Sea pearls Pearls
Spectrolite Feldspar
Spessartine Garnet
Spessartite Garnet
Spinel Spinel
Spodumene Spodumene
Star quartz Quartz
Star ruby Corundum
Star sapphire Corundum
Tanzanite Zoisite
Tiger’s eye Quartz
Topaz Topaz
Trapiche emerald Beryl
Tsavorite Garnet
Water sapphire Cordierite (Iolite)