World Mining Report 2005 – The Middle East

Colored gemstone mining is a hard thing to pin down. The vast majority of mining is still done by independent, small-scale miners, working in remote locations and selling to buyers who pay cash and may or may not declare their gems on export. For many producing countries, particularly in Africa, the real production from the mines probably outstrips the reported production by a factor of 10 -- or 20, or possibly 100. No one really knows. In compiling this report, weve included estimates from both official and unofficial sources, but in some cases there simply isnt any information available. This report isnt intended as a comprehensive list of gemstone deposits; its a guide to the most active mining areas in the world right now, with the humble acknowledgment that no matter how much we see, theres always more out there.

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By Morgan BeardMore from this author

This page "World Mining Report 2005 - The Middle East" includes estimates from both official and unofficial sources of active mining deposits in the Middle East.

Related Article: World Mining Report 2005 - List of Countries

The Middle East


Afghanistan's gem mining industry faces numerous challenges, like political turmoil and the remote, mountainous locations of most of its gem deposits.

Gemstone rough found in Afghanistan usually makes its way on the market via Pakistan, but the transportation of the material continues to be difficult since the war. One dealer reports that the Afghan government has attempted to stop all mining throughout the country, which has led to job loss for approximately 4,000 miners. Mining still does occur, and trade has even increased in Kabul in recent years.

Afghanistan is known for its tourmaline, in a variety of colors like blue, blue-green, and pink, as well as kunzite in pink and bluish-green. Both gemstones are readily available and found in Kunar and Lagman, near Kabul.

Emerald is also mined in the Panjsher area, lapis lazuli in the Badakhshan region, and rubies at the Jegdalek mines. Both ruby and emerald mining has improved over the past few years since it is mostly done by the Northern Alliance, the opposition group who, along with U.S.-led coalition troops, defeated the Taliban.


Pakistan has the potential to become a major player in the world of colored gemstones, since much of the country's mining prospects are still relatively untapped. Pakistani peridot, including material mined in the Suppatt district, still has a strong presence on the market, although the mines are close to depletion. Some feel the peridot found here rivals that of Arizona because much of it is high quality, large, clean, and without olive overtones.

The main emerald deposits are found in Shamozai, Mingora, and Gujjar Killi, located in Swat Valley. Most of the emerald is of good quality; some dealers compare the best stones to the emerald found in Colombia. The emerald deposits have the potential to produce millions of carats, but much of the land is not currently being mined.

Pakistan has a variety of other gemstones such as ruby, tourmaline, topaz, aquamarine, spinel, lapis lazuli, and beryl.


The gemstone wealth of Tajikistan is relatively untapped, yet it is known to have a significant amount of high-quality ruby and flawless spinel. Many of these gemstones are finding their way to Pakistan and Afghanistan, where they are sold locally; dealers will find that prices are lower in Tajikistan because of a lack of knowledge of the industry.

By Gordon Austin, Morgan Beard, Mick Elmore, Cara Woudenberg,
and Megan Zborowski
2005  November/December
In association with
This report was produced in collaboration with the International Colored Gemstone Association.

You assume all responsibility and risk for the use of the safety resources available on or through this web page. The International Gem Society LLC does not assume any liability for the materials, information and opinions provided on, or available through, this web page. No advice or information provided by this website shall create any warranty. Reliance on such advice, information or the content of this web page is solely at your own risk, including without limitation any safety guidelines, resources or precautions, or any other information related to safety that may be available on or through this web page. The International Gem Society LLC disclaims any liability for injury, death or damages resulting from the use thereof.

Morgan Beard

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