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Articles by Woodrow Carpenter
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[209] Cloisonne Primer - History of cloisonne technique
In the late 20s, a small enamel tray, made in China, introduced us to the word cloisonne. The material looked like the granite ware in our kitchen. Obviously the wires were used to keep the colors separated. Then, cloisonne was enamel with wires separating the colors. Simplicity, pure and simple. This is where the majority of the general public leaves the subject, little knowing or caring about its rich history.... (1995)
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Show me more articles from: [Glass on Metal]|[Woodrow Carpenter]
Releated Categories:[Jewelry History]|[Enameling History]|[Cloisonne Enamel]
ISBN: B00007LNCO

 

[274] Enamel Preparation
The traditional method of enamel preparation was described by Cunynghame and Chapin. Large chunks of enamel were wrapped in a piece of cloth and broken with a hammer. The cloth was to prevent the particles from flying about, getting into one's eye or being lost. When the enamel had been broken into pieces about the size of a pea, they were washed to remove any lint.... (1982)
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Releated Categories:[Enameling]
ISBN: B00007LNCO

 

[679] Industrial Liquid Enamels - How to Mix Them
Industrial liquid enamel is a versatile material. It can be used as a base coat, directly on the metal, or as subsequent coats. It can be used to coat one side at a time, or both sides at the same time. It can be applied by pouring, dipping, daubing with a brush, spraying, ear syringe, and more.... (2003)
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Releated Categories:[Enameling]
ISBN: B00007LNCO

 

[227] Metals Suitable for Enameling
The purpose of this article is two fold. First, we receive a number of inquiries as to whether or not certain metals can be enameled. This article will answer most of those questions. Second, we have all read statements such as, 'Gilding metal can be fired no more than two times,' or 'Platinum can not be enameled because it has a terrific expansion.' Such statements were based on observations of a limited range of materials. We will show why the statements are misleading.... (1986)
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Show me more articles from: [Glass on Metal]|[Woodrow Carpenter]
Releated Categories:[Metals]|[Enameling]
ISBN: B00007LNCO

 

[1000] The Manufacture of Enamels
Minerals such as silica, soda ash, potassium nitrate, borax, calcium carbonate, etc. are weighed according to each enamel formula, well mixed, and loaded into a preheated fire clay crucible. The batch is heated to a selected temperature for a sufficient length of time to melt the minerals, forming a viscous liquid, and continued until all gases released during the decomposition of the minerals are eliminated. The enamel is removed by ladling or pouring it onto a thick iron plate where it cools to form "cake" or "lump," into water where it is shattered to be called "frit," or through water cooled iron rolls to be called "roll quenched." The cake and roll quenched are also known as air cooled. The minerals mentioned above will produce colorless transparent enamels. Changing the proportions of these minerals will provide a wide range of firing temperatures and thermal expansions, as well as small changes in gloss, surface tension, and other properties less well known.... (2004)
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Show me more articles from: [Enameling with Professionals]|[Woodrow Carpenter]
Releated Categories:[Enameling]
ISBN: 0971925208

 

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