As many jewelry manufacturers and goldsmiths know from hard experience,
cracking in jewelry can occur at any time during its manufacture. It can
also occur much later, after the jewelry has been sold to the consumer
or during repair. Cracking can also occur in the processing of the starting
materials (the casting grain and mill products from which the jewelry
is to be made), and may not be detected until several stages later in
the manufacturing process.
it occurs, cracking is at the least an inconvenience and an undesirable
cost, and at worst may reflect adversely on the jeweler's reputation.
In many cases, however, it can be prevented by paying careful attention
to each processing step. The challenge for jewelers (and repairers) is
to understand which of the many possible causes is responsible for a particular
incidence of cracking.
The various causes of defects, many of which manifest themselves as
cracking during manufacturing, can be attributed to the following problems:
- Poor quality start materials, including recycled scrap, leading to
contamination and possible embrittlement;
- Poor melting practice, leading to casting defects and/or gas porosity
and blisters, incorporation of inclusions, excessive shrinkage porosity,
- Poor ingot or material working practice, often related to changing
alloy composition without changing the working procedure;
- Incorrect annealing practice, often due to incomplete metallurgical
knowledge of the karat golds;
- Stress corrosion cracking to which some 14k and many lower karatage
gold alloys are susceptible; Quench cracking and fire cracking in nickel
This article discusses these causes
as they relate to cracking and the steps that can be taken to minimize
their occurrence. The particular focus is on karat golds, but much
is also applicable to silver and platinum jewelry.
Start Materials When making karat gold alloys, it is essential to start with clean, oxide-free
metals, whether they are pure metals or pre-alloys (master alloys). All
should be analyzed or purchased with certificates of analysis. The purity
of gold should be at least 99.9 percent, with lead, tin, bismuth, antimony,
selenium, and tellurium impurities specified as less than 0.01 percent.
These impurities can all be present in mined gold, and can lead to alloy
embrittlement-a tendency to crack when a load is applied, such as when
working the material.
A frequent cause of problems, however, is the use of scrap gold, which
tends to be a recurring source of contamination. This is particularly
true for scrap bought from external sources, commonly used as a start
material in some countries. But even internally-generated scrap can be
problematic, especially if it is recycled because of prior process failures.
The use of scrap to make new product should be strictly controlled. Preferably,
the gold should be subject to melting and analysis before it is used to
make new alloy ingots, or recycled in investment casting.
Typical contaminants in scrap include refractory materials, such as investment
particles on unclean sprues, oxides from dirty surfaces, silicon from
casting alloy, and lead-tin solder from repaired jewelry. Scrap jewelry
containing soldered joints may introduce indium, germanium, or tin. All
these contaminants can lead to inclusions or alloy embrittlement. As a
result, the only guaranteed safe way of utilizing scrap is to refine it
Embrittlement by low melting point metals (and silicon) tends to result
from the formation of low melting point metallic second phases. These
phases are either the contaminating metal itself, which generally has
extremely low solubility in gold, or they occur as a reaction product
of the contaminant with gold, silver, or copper. The effect is magnified
if the grain size of the alloy is large, since these second phases tend
to be dispersed as very thin films around the grain boundaries. Fine-grained
alloys will tend to have a lower concentration of embrittling phase per
grain boundary area. Often, these contaminants manifest themselves as
cracking during metal working operations. However, as will be discussed
later, there are other reasons for karat gold alloys failing during fabrication.
Melting and Casting A very significant proportion of karat gold jewelry is manufactured either
by investment casting, using casting grain, or from mill product (sheet,
strip, wire, or tube) that are derived from statically-cast ingots or
Investment (lost wax) castings are prone to embrittlement, particularly
when silicon-containing alloys and scrap are used. Problems can also arise
due to unclean gold scrap (even when it doesn't contain silicon), inclusions
from crucibles, weak investment molds, and shrinkage and gas porosity.
Large porosity, in particular, may act to cause cracking during subsequent
processing. Hard refractory inclusions (i.e., ceramic particles from melting
crucibles or investment molds, or "dirt" from the workshop that
falls into the melt) resist deformation during working and act as crack
initiators in the gold alloy. If present on the surface, they can break
out, leaving large surface porosity that is drawn into a longitudinal
surface crack on further working.
Continuous casting of karat gold alloys almost always uses high density,
fine grain graphite for the mold material to ensure good quality product.
It is capable of giving much higher quality (and higher product yields)
because there is no shrinkage pipe, as occurs with statically-cast ingots.
However, erosion of the mold can lead to graphite inclusions in the melt.
Surface defects are also a possibility if mold wear or sticking occurs
to any extent. By and large, though, continuously-cast materials seldom
give rise to mechanical defects.
Static casting of ingots tends to be a much simpler operation, with
melting by gas heating, oil-fired furnaces, electric resistance heating,
or induction heating. Induction heating ensures maximum stirring of the
alloy constituents, making it the preferred method of heating, although
other heating methods combined with physical stirring of the melt with
graphite or refractory rods is commonplace. Crucibles are typically clay-graphite
or graphite (fireclay for nickel white golds, as nickel will react with
graphite), and molds are typically made from iron or water-cooled copper.
Static casting can be a source of several problems, including the following:
Shrinkage and pipes. When a cast ingot
solidifies, it shrinks. This becomes evident as a central pipe at the
top of the ingot. This pipe must be cut off before working the ingot,
otherwise a central defect will be introduced that will elongate upon
working. This central defect is likely to result in subsequent longitudinal
cracking. The pipe will be more pronounced if the casting temperature
is too high, so it is normal practice to restrict the casting temperature
to no more than 200?F/93?C above the liquidus temperature of the alloy.
High casting temperatures also encourage large grain sizes, which decrease
the ductility of the alloy and, at the same time, magnify the effect of
any low melting point impurities that might be present.
Blistering and porosity. Surface blistering
or internal gas porosity can show up later in fabrication operations as
surface defects or cracks. In this situation, gas from the start material
(dissolved gas or damp materials) or gas dissolved during the melting
operation (aggravated by too high a melting temperature, lack of a protective
atmosphere or a flux, and use of gas melting) evolves as porosity during
solidification. Initial working may flatten the pores and cause small
laminations and cracks, or it may close the porosity, only to have the
gas expand later during annealing operations and reappear as blisters.
Inclusions. Inclusions can be incorporated
into the melt from several sources, including erosion of the crucible
(replace crucibles before significant wear occurs), from furnace insulation
or lining, or from broken stirring rods. They can also be caused by a
reaction between the atmosphere and alloying element (for example, oxygen
and copper forming copper oxide), or the use of grain refiners that have
not been dispersed correctly, particularly iridium, which is very insoluble
in gold and forms very hard clusters of particles. Such inclusions can
give rise to cracks or failure during subsequent working because they
act as stress concentrators, which initiate cracks.
Surface defects. Surface defects on
the ingot can also lead to cracks. These defects can arise due to poor
melting and casting practices. They include surface inclusions, oxidation,
mechanical damage, and solidified splashes during casting that stick to
the mold wall. Many of these problems can be avoided by inspecting all
ingot surfaces and cleaning away all evidence of defects before any working
operations are undertaken. If necessary, the ingot surface might have
to be milled to ensure it is clean and flat.
Cracking During Fabrication Cracking can occur at any stage of fabrication, including:
Overworking. All forms of metal working-including
sheet and rod rolling, wire and tube drawing, blanking, stamping, coining,
spinning and raising, milling, turning and machining, and simply bending
by hand-result in the material becoming harder and less ductile. The degree
to which it hardens and loses ductility depends on the amount of deformation
imparted. If material is overworked, the ductility reduces to zero, and
it will crack.
Annealing restores the material's ductility, and so is normally performed
at appropriate stages in the working process. The rate at which alloys
work-harden and the extent to which they can be worked before annealing
varies from alloy to alloy. Typically, karat gold alloys can be worked
up to about 70 percent reduction in area (strain) before they require
annealing. However, there are considerable variations; for example, nickel
white golds harden rapidly and normally require annealing after a 35 percent
or 40 percent reduction. On the other hand, fine gold and some of the
high karat golds can be worked well in excess of 90 percent reduction
in area before annealing.
Overworking can cause several problems. For example, edge cracking during
rolling of sheet material is normally the result of overworking. To avoid
further problems, the edges must be trimmed, since further rolling after
annealing will increase the danger of some cracks running in towards the
that occur during rod rolling include the formation of fins, which are
caused when too much material is pushed into the rolling groove, so that
the rolls are forced apart and excess metal is squeezed out sideways.
These fins are then rolled into the rod, becoming laps. Both fins and
laps can open up as cracks at later stages of fabrication. Their formation
can be prevented by avoiding too large a reduction and by rotating the
rod through 90 degrees between successive passes.
Localized overworking can also cause cracking during sheet metal forming
operations, such as stamping or deep drawing. Fracturing occurs at the
weakest or thinnest point, which in forming operations is usually where
the sheet bends around the tool. It may be necessary to partially shape
the component in one die-set and then further form it in another die-set.
Selection of the correct material and processing conditions are important,
and will depend on individual circumstances.
Embrittlement by impurities. As we
discussed earlier, certain impurities, including silicon, will embrittle
gold. Any attempt at working embrittled material will result in cracking.
Another reported source of embrittlement is contamination from lead
formers. Manual working, such as raising, and repair operations often
involve hand-working on a soft former, frequently made of lead, to prevent
surface damage. We know of an example of embrittlement in which lead from
the former contaminated the surface of the gold, with the lead diffusing
into the gold during subsequent annealing or soldering. This contamination
can lead to embrittlement and failure of the jewelry item. Because of
the possibility of such contamination that can lead to embrittlement,
the use of metallic lead in contact with gold is risky. If the technique
is considered essential, the gold should be separated from the lead with
a tough grade of paper.
Incorrect annealing practice. Incorrect
cooling conditions after annealing can, paradoxically, lead to hardening
rather than softening in some karat golds. On subsequent working, the
material cracks. Golds in the red to yellow range, 8k to 18k, should be
rapidly cooled after annealing by quenching directly in water; this maintains
a soft ductile condition, whereas slow cooling results in hardening. Repairers
should also anneal and water quench such jewelry items before re-sizing
or repair for this reason.
Over-annealing the metal at too high a temperature and/or for too long
a time can also result in cracking. Over-annealing produces a large, coarse
grain size, and subsequent deformation can lead to premature cracking
and fracture, as well as an "orange peel" surface. This is a
problem particularly with torch annealing, where the capability to control
temperature is limited. It is human nature to get the metal really hot
and give it a bit of extra time to "make sure" that it is soft
enough. Instead, avoid over-annealing by taking extra care to anneal the
metal at the lowest effective temperature and time.
The issue of cracking arising during the fabrication of karat gold jewelry,
or later during service or repair, can be complex. Although there are
well-defined causes for cracking, a crack's appearance is not uniquely
associated with one particular cause. Establishing the precise reason
for failure may require specialized equipment and knowledge. The situation
may be further complicated by defects that arise as a result of more than
one cause. However, there are probably two aspects of manufacturing that contribute
most to minimizing the production of defective or scrap jewelry products:
First, a good understanding of the metallurgy of the karat golds and,
second, the establishment of good manufacturing practice for materials
and products-and the strict adherence to those practices.